Epipactis helleborine - Broad-leaved Helleborine

Phylum: Magnoliophyta - Class: Liliopsida - Order: Orchidales - Family: Orchidaceae

Epipactis helleborine - Broad-leaved Helleborine, Wales

Anyone fond of walking in woods and forests in high summer might come across the Broad-leaved Helleborine, which grows in clearings and often appears very close to well trodden paths. Coniferous woodland is particularly good for Epipactis helleborine.

Description

Accurate identification of Epipactis helleborine is difficult throughout its territorial range because it is extremely variable both in its overall size and the colouring of its flowers.

Depending on their position, the plants of Broad-leaved Helleborine can grow to close on a metre in height, but in more exposed positions the plants are often small and spindly. The leaves, which are large and usually veined, are the most obvious distinguishing feature of the species. The flowers are sometimes green but more often green washed with pink or purple. Some plants have deep pink flowers and this often leads to confusion with Dark-red Helleborine Epipactis atrorubens, but the two species grow in very different habitats.

Distribution

Widespread throughout Britain and Ireland. This orchid also occurs in most of mainland Europe, although some plants found in the Mediterranean region are treated as separate species. The range continues throughout central Asia and into the Himalayas. Epipactis helleborine was imported to North America and is spreading through many states.

Epipactis helleborine - Broad-leaved Helleborine, closeup of flower

Habitat

Epipactis helleborine is essentially a woodland plant and, although mainly associated with deciduous trees, in Wales it is found extensively with spruce trees. Although it prefers open rides and the sides of paths where there is more light, in some places this orchid grows very successfully in deeply shaded woodland.

Flowering times

Broad-leaved Helleborine flowers from late June through to early September.

The specimens on this page were photographed in dark coniferous woodland in Southwest Wales during August.

Epipactis helleborine f. alba - Broad-leaved Helleborine - white form

From time to time specimens of Epipactis helleborine with white leaves are found, and are described as being a 'white form' of the species - see below.

Epipactis helleborine f alba

Broad-leaved Helleborine - white form

Epipactis helleborine f. alba. Pictures: Simon Harding

Reference sources

The Plant List

Anne and Simon Harrap (2005) Orchids of Britain and Ireland; A&C Black

Pierre Delforge (2005) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East; A&C Black

Den Nordiska Floran (1992) Bo Mossberg, Stefan Ericsson and Lennart Stenberg; Wahlstrom & Widstrand


If you found this information helpful, we are sure you would also like books on the Wild Orchids of Wales, of The Burren, and of the Algarve. Author-signed copies are available here...