Origins of Scientific Names of Fungi; Authors and Convention for Citation

Problems with using common names given to fungi

Unfortunately some common names refer to as many as a dozen different fungi species, often from different genera. To complicate matters further, some mushrooms species have several common names. Using common names is okay if you don’t mind being misunderstood occasionally, but when getting your message across really matters using common names is far too risky. Scientific names, sometimes referred to as Latin names, refer to one and only one fungus species.

Strictly speaking there is nothing particularly scientific about the ‘scientific’ names of fungi. They arose via botany, and botanical names are based on an archaic language no longer spoken but serving merely as notation. (Arguments about pronunciation do seem rather pointless, therefore.) The advantage, however, is that a botanical name means the same to botanists (and mycologists) throughout the world; it avoids ambiguity. Well, that’s the idea, at least...

Origins and meanings of fungi genus names

The information below is a summarized version of one of the appendices in Pat O'Reilly's latest book, 'Fascinated by Fungi'. For full details and sample pages see our Bookshop, where you can order an author-signed copy online...

A genus name is given to a group of fungi with similar physical characteristics that are confined essentially to that group. The name, usually derived from either medieval or - Classical Latin or as a latinized version of a Greek word, may be chosen in honour of a person, as a reference to a place or a kind of habitat, or to denote a prominent characteristic of the group of fungi. (There are also a few scientific names that have no real meaning – perhaps as a result of an initial misidentification.) Here are some commonly encountered genus names and their origins/meanings:

Agaricus

of the country

 

Laetiporus

bright/abundant

Agrocybe

field cap/head

 

Leccinum

fungus

Aleuria

wheat flour

 

Lentinus

pliable, or sticky

Amanita

Mount Amanus

 

Lenzites

Harald Othmar Lenz

Armillaria

like a bracelet

 

Leotia

smooth mushroom

Asterophora

star-shaped spores

 

Lepiota

scaly mushroom

Astraeus

star

 

Lepista

wine goblet

Auricularia

ear

 

Leucoagaricus

white Agaricus

Bankera

Howard J Banker

 

Lycoperdon

wolf’s flatulence

Bjerkandera

Clas Bjerkander

 

Lyophyllum

loose or free gills

Bolbitius

cow pat

 

Macrocystidia

large cystidia

Boletus

a clod

 

Macrolepiota

large and scaly

Bulgaria

leather bag

 

Marasmius

withered

Calocera

beautiful horn

 

Melanoleuca

black

Calocybe

beautiful head

 

Meripilus

partitioned cap

Calvatia

bald/hairless

 

Morchella

morel

Camarophyllus

vaulted gills

 

Mutinus

phallic deity

Cantharellus

chalice/cup

 

Mycena

mushroom

Chlorociboria

green-yellow chalice

 

Neobulgaria

new leather bag

Clathrus

iron grid/lattice

 

Nidula

little nest

Clavaria

like a club

 

Omphalina

little navel

Clitocybe

sloping head

 

Otidea

ear

Clitopilus

sloping cap

 

Oudemansiella

Corneille Oudemans    

Collybia

like a small coin

 

Panaeolus

variegated

Coprinus

dung

 

Panellus

ragged

Cordyceps

swollen head

 

Paxillus

small stake/stick/peg

Coriolus

leathery

 

Peziza

stalkless mushroom

Cortinarius

with a curtain

 

Phaelepiota

dusky and smooth

Crepidotus

slipper

 

Phaeolus

dusky

Cystoderma

blistered skin

 

Phallus

phallus

Daedalea

labyrinthine

 

Phellinus

corky

Daldinia

charred wood

 

Pholiota

scaly

Dermocybe

skin-head

 

Piptoporus

detachable pores

Entoloma

(margin) inrolled

 

Pisolithus

pea in stone

Exidia

staining/exuding

 

Pleurotus

sideways (attached)

Fistulina

tube or pipe

 

Polyporus

many pores

Flammulina

flame

 

Psathyrella

brittle/fragile

Fomes

tinder

 

Psilocybe

bare/smooth head

Galerina

helmet

 

Ramaria

branching

Ganoderma

lustrous skin

 

Russula

reddish

Geastrum

earth star

 

Sarcodon

fleshy with teeth

Geoglossum

earth tongue

 

Schizophyllum

split gills

Gomphidius

peg, stake or nail

 

Scleroderma

hard skin

Grifola

braided hair of griffin

 

Serpula

snake

Gymnopilus

naked head

 

Stereum

hard

Hebeloma

blunt

 

Strobilomyces

pine cones

Helvella

aromatic herb

 

Stropharia

belt

Hericium

hedgehog

 

Suillus

swine (pigs)

Heterobasidion

irregular base

 

Thelephora

having nipples

Hydnum

mushroom

 

Trametes

thin

Hygrocybe

moist head

 

Tremella

trembling, like a jelly

Hygrophorus

water carrier

 

Tricholoma

hairy/fibrous

Hypholoma

fringed with tissue

 

Tubaria

trumpet

Inocybe

fibre head

 

Tulostoma

knob on a club

Inonotus

fibrous

 

Tylopilus

lumpy cap

Kuehneromyces

Robert Kühner

 

Volvariella

volva or bag

Laccaria

painted

 

Xerocomus

dry

Lacrymaria

tears (as in crying)

 

Xylaria

woody

Lactarius

milk

 

 

 

The origin and meaning of fungi species names (specific epithets)

The bases of specific epithets of some common fungi are indicated in the table below. (Variable endings such as lucida, lucidus, lucidum have not been given multiple entries.)

abietus

fir trees

 

fascicularia

bundled

acaulis

stemless

 

ferruginosa

rusty

acerbum

bitter

 

fimbriata

fringed

acerrimus

very sharp

 

flammula

flame

acris

acrid

 

flava

yellow

acuminatus, acutus

with a sharp point

 

floccopus

woolly foot

adiposa

fat

 

foenisecii

haymaking

adspersum

scattered

 

foetens

stinking

adusta

scorched, swarthy

 

fornicatus

arched/vaulted

aegeritus

poplar trees

 

fragrans

fragrant

aeruginosa

blue-green

 

fragrantissima

very fragrant

aestivus

summer

 

fruticosa

shrub-like

alba

white

 

fuliginosa

soot

alnicola

alder trees

 

fulva

tawny (fox coloured)

ammophila

sand loving

 

fusca

dark/dusky

amoenolens

pleasant smelling

 

fusiformis

spindle shaped

anthracina

charcoal or coal

 

gambosa

swollen base

apiculatus

with a small point

 

geotropa

erect above earth

appendiculatus

small appendage

 

gibba

humped/rounded

applanatum

flattened

 

glaucus

grey bloom

arborescens

tree-like

 

gracilis

graceful

argenteus

silvery

 

grandis

big

aspera

rough

 

griseum

grey

asterospora

star-shaped spores

 

hepatica

of liver

ater, atra, atro

black

 

hirsuta

hairy

atramentaria

inky

 

hispidus

shaggy/spiny

aurantiaca

orange

 

humilis

low

aurata, aurea

gilded/golden

 

hybridus

hybrid

auricula

ear

 

illota

dirty/unwashed

australis

southern

 

imbricata

covered in scales

azonites

not zoned

 

impolitus

rough/matt

azurea

azure, sky blue

 

incarnata

flesh coloured

badius

reddish-brown

 

infundibuliformis

funnel shaped

betula, betulina

birch trees

 

integra

whole/entire

bisporus

two-spored basidia

 

inversa

upside down

blanda

pleasant

 

involutus

in-rolled

bolaris

lumps of paint

 

junonius

Juno

bombycina

silky

 

laccata

painted

borealis

northern

 

lactea

milky

brevipes

short foot

 

laeta

bright or abundant

brumalis

winter

 

lateritium

colour of bricks

butyracea

buttery

 

leoninus

lion

caerula

deep blue

 

littoralis

seashore

caesius

blue-grey

 

livida

lead grey

caespitosus

clustered/tufted

 

lucida

clear/glossy

campestris

fields

 

luridus

lurid/unclean/dingy

canadensis

of Canada/America

 

luteus

yellow

candicans

shining white

 

maculata

spotted/blotchy

candidus

pure white

 

maxima

largest

caninus

dog

 

mellea

honey coloured

capillaris

hair

 

miniata

painted with red lead

carnea

flesh coloured

 

minor

smaller

castaneus

chestnut

 

mollis

soft and/or hairy

cavipes

hollow foot

 

montana

mountains

ceracea

waxy

 

mucosus

slime/mucus

cervinus

deer/fawn coloured

 

muscaria

fly

chlorophana

pale green

 

nigra

black

chrysorrheus

gold flowing

 

nitida

shining

cibarius

food/edible

 

odorata

scented

ciliata

fringed with hair

 

ovata

egg shaped

cinerea

ashen

 

paludosa

swamp/marsh/bog

cingulatum

girdled

 

palustris

marshes

cinnamomeus

cinnamon coloured

 

panaeolus

variegated

cirrhatus

curled

 

peronata

booted/sheathed

citrina

lemon yellow

 

personata

masked

claroflava

bright yellow

 

piperatus

peppery

clavipes

club foot

 

polymorpha

many shapes/forms

coccineus

scarlet

 

plicatilis

pleated

cochleatus

snail shell

 

praecox

early/premature

collinitus

covered in slime

 

psittacina

parrot

comatus

covered in hair

 

pubescens

downy

communis

common

 

pulchella

pretty

confluens

running together

 

pulverulentus

powdery

confragosa

rough/scaly

 

pumilis

low

cordata

heart

 

punctata

spotted

cornuta

horn

 

purpurea

purple

coronaria

crown

 

rosea

rosy red

cortina

curtain

 

ruber, rubra

red

crispa

finely waved, curled

 

rubescens

becoming red

cristata

crested

 

rufus

ruddy

croceus

saffron (yellow)

 

sanguinea

blood

cruentus

bloody

 

sardonica

very bitter

cuspidata

pointed

 

silvaticus

woodland

dealbata

whitewashed

 

speciosa

showy

decolorans

fading

 

spectabilis

spectacular

decora

beautiful

 

tabescens

decomposing

delibutus

greasy

 

tomentosa

hairy

dulcis

sweet

 

variegata

variegated

eburneus

ivory

 

vellereus

woolly

echinocephalus

spiny head

 

viridis

green

edulis

edible

 

vulgaris

common

elata

tall

     

elegans

elegant, slender

     

epipterygia

small wing on top

     

erythropus

reddish foot

     

esculenta

good to eat

     

 

Citation of Mycology Authorities, Author Standard Abbreviations and Brief Biographies

The information below is a summarized version of one of the appendices in Pat O'Reilly's latest book, 'Fascinated by Fungi'. For full details and sample pages see our Bookshop, where you can order an author-signed copy online...

In accordance with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), the complete scientific name of a fungus consists of a Latinised binomial (Genus name followed by species name, using the system introduced by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753). The binomial, written in italics, is followed by the name of the authority who applied that binomial to it. The names of famous fungi pioneers who described numerous species are, by tradition, abbreviated often to just the surname - sometimes in truncated form. (see our list of standard abbreviations of authorities...)

How fungi father figures are cited in the scientific naming convention

In accordance with the ICBN, the complete scientific name of a fungus consists of a Latinised binomial (Genus name followed by species name, using the system introduced by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753). The binomial, written in italics, is followed by the name of the authority who applied that binomial to it. The names of famous fungi pioneers who described numerous species are, by tradition, abbreviated often to just the surname - sometimes in truncated form.

Most fungi websites (including this one) and even some field guides omit the names of authorities on the basis that few amateurs have much interest in the matter of who first described a species and gave it its specific epithet. Professionals need full citations for several reasons. One species may have been named and described by two or more authorities unaware of one another’s work or not realising that the fungi were actually the same species. Even when a species was uniquely described and named by an authority in the distant past, during the intervening years its binomial name may have been altered. The full authority citation states who allocated the original species epithet and who later moved it into a different genus. (Some species have been through many such changes.) Full citations allow us to search the technical literature in order to find the original descriptions of species.

Some citations are very straightforward. For example, it was the Swedish botanist Elias Magnus Fries, in his Systema Mycologium published in 1821, who first described the Chanterelle and named it Cantharellus cibarius. There have been no changes to this name, and so it has always been simply cited as:

Cantharellus cibarius Fries

or, more commonly, using an abbreviated form of the author’s name:

Cantharellus cibarius Fr.

You won’t find Plinny or Caesar cited as naming authorities, because the ICBN rule is that (with the exception of rusts, smuts and gasteromycetes fungi, where C H Persoon’s 1801 Synopsis Methodica Fungorum takes precedence) the starting point for fungi taxonomy is Elias Fries’ Systema Mycologium of 1821. Names sanctioned (meaning that they were retained without change) by Fries in his 1821 publication still stand today, albeit with genus amendments in many instances. This applies not only to species that Fries himself named but also to species named by others, including Linneaus, before these dates. (This rule applies equally to species named by Persoon other than in categories mentioned above.)

So, for example, in 1821 the white edible agaric that we know as St George’s Mushroom was named by Fries as Agaricus gambosus. In fact this species had already been described by Linnaeus, in his Species Plantarum published in 1753, in which he called it Agaricus georgii. Fries chose not to accept Linnaeus’s epithet, and he renamed it Agaricus gambosus. Under the ICBN rules, the specific epithet given by Fries is retained today. This mushroom  was later moved by Paul Kummer to the genus Tricholoma, and  more recently Rolf Singer moved it to the genus Calocybe. As a result, St George’s Mushroom can be identified as either:

Agaricus gambosus Fr.
Tricholoma gambosum (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Sing.

You will note that Rolf Singer’s surname has been abbreviated in the third of these citations, which is the scientific name by which this mushroom is generally known today.

Currently accepted binomial names of fungi therefore include many that were first named by authors prior to the 1821 publication by Fries or the 1801 publication by Persoon, where those names were sanctioned (retained) by Fries or Persoon. They are cited showing the original authority and the sanctioning authority. For example:

Agaricus campestris L.: Fr.

shows that Linnaeus named the Field Mushroom as Agaricus campestris and that Fries retained that name in his 1821 publication. An alternative form of writing this name, again acknowledging the original contribution by Linnaeus, is:

Agaricus campestris L. ex Fr.

In principle, therefore, there is no reason why a fungus species might not still have a name given to it by Plinny (who would have coped well with the Latin)… except that the binomial system had not been devised in Plinny’s day. That’s why there are common names but no scientific names predating those assigned by Linnaeus.

Fries with everything

You will also see the authority reference Fr.: Fr. It is used where Fries named a species prior to 1821 and retained the original name in his Systema Mycologium. Species first named by Fries in his 1821 publication and unaltered since then are written in the form:

Agaricus augustus Fr.

All of the species named by authorities subsequent to these founders of fungi taxonomy and unchanged since are written in the form:

Russula violacea Quél.

The authority referenced in this case is the great French mycologist Lucien Quélet, who first described this brittlegill mushroom in 1882.

If people investigating fungi had all worked together, perhaps that would be the end of the matter. Unfortunately, occasionally by chance different authorities applied the same binomial name to two or more different species – in which case the names are known as homonyms and the ICBN rule is that the name remains with the fungus to which it was applied earliest; once the mistake is recognised, the other species must be renamed.

Sometimes the same species was named separately by two or more people, and then the various names are known as synonyms. Many of the fungi illustrated in this book have several synonyms, and they are all valid names under the ICBN rules. In quoting binomials I have been guided by the checklists maintained by the British Mycological Society.

Standard Abbreviations of Mycological Authority (Authors) Names, and brief Biographies

The following list of mycological authorities is taken mainly from the database of authorities for plant (and fungi) names maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Standard abbreviations are listed in the first column and highlighted in bold in the authors’ full names in the second column. Brief biographies of selected authorities (including, for example, Elias Magnus Fries and Christiaan Hendrik Persoon) are also available on this site and can be accessed via links in the table below:

Abbreviation

Authority (Hyperlinks are to brief biographies)

Country of Birth

Born

Died

Afzel.

Adam Afzelius

Sweden

1750

1837

Alb.

Johannes Baptista von Albertini

Germany

1769

1831

Atk.

George Francis Atkinson

USA

1854

1918

Badham

Charles David Badham

Britain

1806

1857

Bagl.

Francesco Baglietto

Italy

1826

1916

Bataille

Frederic Bataille

France

1850

1946

Batsch

August Johann Georg Karl Batsch

Germany

1761

1802

Battarra

Giovanni Antonio Battarra

Italy

1714

1789

Beck

Günther Beck von Mannagetta und Lerchenau

Austria

1856

1931

Berk.

Miles Joseph Berkeley

Britain

1803

1889

Bertill.

Louis-Adolphe Bertillon

France

1821

1883

Bigeard

René Bigeard (1840 – 1917)

France

1840

1917

A. Blytt

Axel Gudbrand Blytt

Norway

1843

1898

Bolton

James Bolton

Britain

1750

1799

Bondarzew

Appolonaris Semyonovich Bondartsev

Russia

1857

1968

Bonord.

Hermann Friedrich Bonorden

Germany

1801

1884

Boud.

Jean Louis Emile Boudier

France

1828

1920

Bourdot

Hubert Bourdot

France

1861

1937

Bref.

Julius Oscar Brefeld

Germany

1839

1925

Bres.

Giacopo Bresadola

Italy

1847

1929

F Brig.

Francesco Briganti

Italy

1802

1865

V Brig.

Vincenzo Briganti

Italy

1766

1836

Britzelm.

Max Britzelmayr

Germany

1839

1909

Brond.

Louis de Brondeau

France

1794

1859

Broome

Christopher Edmund Broome

Britain

1812

1866

Buller

Arthur Henry Reginald Buller

Canada

1874

1944

Bull.

Jean Baptiste Francois Bulliard

France

1752

1793

Burlingham

Gertrude Simmons Burlingham

USA

1872

1952

Burt

Edward Angus Burt

USA

1859

1939

Coker

William Chambers Coker

USA

1872

1953

Cooke

Mordecai Cubitt Cooke

Britain

1825

1914

G. Cunn.

Gordon Herriot Cunningham

New Zealand

1892

1962

Curtis

Moses Ashley Curtis

New Zealand

1808

1872

De C.

Augustin Pyramus De Candolle

Switzerland

1778

1841

De Not.

Giuseppe De Notaris

Italy

1805

1877

Dennis

Richard William George Dennis

Britain

1910

2003

Desm.

John Baptiste Henri Joseph Desmazieres

France

1786

1862

Desv.

Nicaise Auguste Desvaux

France

1784

1856

Dicks.

James J. Dickson

Scotland

1738

1822

Dill.

Johann Jacob Dillenius

Germany

1684

1747

Ditmar

Fr. L P Ditmar [dates of publications]

Germany

[1806]

[1817]

Donk

Marinus Anton Donk

Netherlands

1908

1972

Durieu

Michel Charles Durieu de Maisonneuve

France

1796

1878

Earle

Franklin Sumner Earle

USA

1856

1929

Ehrh.

Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart

Germany

1742

1795

Ellis

Job Bicknell Ellis

USA

1829

1905

Fayod

Victor Fayod

Switzerland

1860

1900

Fr.

Elias Magnus Fries

Swedish

1794

1878

Fuckel

Karl Wilhelm Gottlieb Leopold Fuckel

German

1821

1876

Galzin

Amédée Galzin

France

1853

1925

Genev.

Leon Gaston Genevier

France

1830

1880

Gillet

Claude-Casimir Gillet

France

1806

1896

E.-J. Gilbert

Édouard-Jean Gilbert

France

1888

1954

Gilb.

Robert Lee Gilbertson

USA

1925

2011

Gray

Samuel Frederick Gray

Britain

1766

1828

Grev.

Robert Kaye Greville

Britain

1794

1866

Gray

Samuel Frederick Gray

Britain

1766

1828

Grove

William Bywater Grove

Britain

1848

1938

J W Groves

James Walton Groves

Canada

1906

1970

Guill.

Henri Guillemin

France

?

?

Harmaja

Harri Harmaja

Finland

1944

 

Harkn.

Harvey Wilson Harkness

USA

1821

1901

Henn.

Paul Christoph Hennings

Germany

1841

1908

Herink

Josef Herink

Czech Republic

1915

1999

Hesler

Lexemuel Ray Hesler

USA

1888

1997

Hoffm.

George Franz Hoffmann

Germany

1761

1826

Hohenbühel

Ludwig Samuel Joseph David Alexander von Hohenbühel Heufler

Austria

1817

1885

Höhn.

Franz Xaver Rudolf von Höhnel

Austria

1852

1920

Holmsk.

Theodor Holmskjold

Denmark

1732

1794

Hooker.

Sir William Jackson Hooker

Britain

1785

1865

Huds.

William Hudson

British

1730

1793

Imbach

Emil J Imbach

Germany

1897

1970

Jacq.

Nicolaus Joseph von Jacquin

Netherlands

1727

1817

Joss.

Marcel Josserand

France

1900

1992

Jungh.

Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn

Germany

1809

1864

Kalchbr.

Karoly Kalchbrenner

Hungary

1807

1886

Kallenb.

Franz Joseph Kallenbach

Germany

1893

1944

Karsten

Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten

Germany

1817

1908

P. Karst.

Petter Adolf Karsten

Finland

1834

1917

Kauffmann

Calvin Henry Kauffmann

USA

1869

1931

Kickx

Jean Jacques Kickx

Belgium

1842

1887

Klotzsch

Johann Friedrich Klotzsch

Germany

1805

1860

Kotl.

František Kotlaba

Chech Republic

1927

-

Konrad

Paul Konrad

France

1877

1948

Krombh.

Julius Vincenz von Krombholz

Czech Republic

1782

1843

Kühner

Robert Kühner

Germany

1903

1996

Kummer

Paul Kummer

Germany

1834

1912

Kuntze

(Carl Ernst) Otto Kuntze

Germany

1843

1907

Lambotte

Jean Baptiste EmilĀ Lambotte

Belgium

1832

1905

J. E. Lange

Jakob Emanuel Lange

Denmark

1864

1941

Lasch

Wilhelm Gottfried Lasch

Germany

1787

1863

Lenz

Harald Othmar Lenz

Germany

1798

1870

Letellier

Jean Baptiste Louis Letellier

France

1817

1898

Lév.

Joseph-Henri Léveillé

France

1796

1870

Leysser

Friedrich Wilhelm von Leysser

Germany

1731

1815

Link

Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link

Germany

1767

1850

L.

Karl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus)

Sweden

1707

1778

Lloyd

Curtis Gates Lloyd

USA

1859

1926

Maire

René Charles Joseph Ernest Maire

France

1878

1949

C. Martin

Charles-Édouard Martin

France

1847

1937

Massee

George Edward Massee

Britain

1850

1917

Maaubl.

André Maublanc

France

1880

1958

Melzer

Václav Melzer

Czechoslavakia

1878

1968

P Micheli

Pier Antonio Micheli

Italian

1679

1737

O. K. Mill

Orson K Miller Jr.

USA

1930

2006

F. H. Møller

Frits Hansen Møller

Denmark

1887

1962

Mont.

Jean Pierre Francois Camille Montagne

France

1784

1866

J Moravec

Jiří Moravec

Czech Republic

1943

 

Morgan

Andrew Price Morgan

USA

1836

1907

M.M. Moser

Meinhard Michael Moser ( - 2002)

Austria

1924

2002

Murrill

William Alphonso Murrill

USA

1869

1957

Nees

Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck

Germany

1776

1858

Nobles

Mildred Katherine Nobles

Canada

1903

1993

Noordel.

Machiel Noordeloos

Netherlands

1949

 

Opat.

Wilhelm Opatowski

German

1810

1838

P D Orton

Peter Darbishire Orton

Britain

1916

2005

Pass.

Giovanni Passerini

Italy

1816

1893

Pat.

Narcisse Theophile Patouillard

France

1854

1926

Paulet

Jean Jacques Paulet

France

1740

1826

Peck

Charles Horton Peck

USA

1833

1917

Pers.

Christiaan Hendrik Persoon

Netherlands

1761

1837

Petr.

Franz Petrak

Austria

1886

1973

Pilát

Albert Pilát

Czech Republic

1903

1974

Pouzar

Zdeněk Pouzar

Czech Republic

1932

 

Quél.

Lucien Quélet

France

1832

1899

Rabenh.

Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst

Germany

1806

1881

Ramsb.

John Ramsbottom

Britain

1885

1974

Ravenel

Henry William Ravenel

USA

1814

1887

Rea

Carleton Rea

Britain

1861

1946

D.A. Reid

Derrek Agutter Reid

Britain

1927

2006

Relhan

Richard Relhan

Britain

1754

1823

Retz.

Anders Jahan Retzius

Sweden

1724

1821

Ricken

Adalbert Ricken

Germany

1851

1921

Richon

Charles Édouard Richon

France

1820

1893

Rolland

Léon Louis Rolland

France

1841

1912

Rostk.

Friedrich Wilhelm Gottfried Theophil Rostkovius

German

1770

1848

Romagn.

Henri Charles Louis Romagnesi

France

1912

1999

Roussel

Henri François Anne de Roussel

France

1748

1812

Roze

Ernest Roze

France

1833

1900

Ryvarden

Leif Randulff Ryvarden

Norway

1935

-

Sacc.

Pier Andrea Saccardo

Italy

1845

1920

Schaeff.

Jacob Christian Schaeffer

Germany

1718

1790

Jul. Schäff.

Julius Schäffer

Germany

1882

1944

Schröt.

Joseph Schröter

Germany

1837

1894

Schumach.

Heinrich Christian Friedrich Schumacher

Denmark

1757

1830

Schwein.

Lewis David von Schweinitz

USA

1780

1834

Scop.

Joannes Antonius Scopoli

Italy

1723

1788

Secr.

Louis Secretan

Switzerland

1758

1839

Sing.

Rolf Singer

Germany

1906

1994

A H Smith

Alexander Hanchett Smith

USA

1904

1986

Sommerf.

Soren Christian Sommerfelt

Norway

1794

1838

Sowerby

James Sowerby

Britain

1757

1822

Šutara

Josef Šutara

Chechoslovakia

1943

-

Thax.

Roland Thaxter

USA

1858

1932

Tiegh.

Phillippe Édouard Léon van Tieghem

France

1839

1914

Tul.

Louis Rene Tulasne

France

1815

1885

Underw.

Lucien Marcus Underwood

USA

1853

1907

Velen.

Josef Velenovský

Czech Republic

1858

1949

A Venturi

Antonio Venturi

Italy

1805

1864

Vitadd.

Carlo Vittadini

Italian

1800

1865

Viv.

Domenico Viviani

Italian

1772

1840

Wall.

Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Wallroth

Germany

1792

1857

Weigel

Christian Ehrenfried Weigel

Germany

1748

1831

Weinm.

Johann Anton Weinmann

Germany

1782

1858

Willd.

Carl Ludwig von Willdenow

Germany

1765

1812

With.

William Withering

Britain

1741

1799

Wulfen

Franz Xavier von Wulfen

Austria

1728

1805


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