FUNGI (Mushrooms, Toadstools etc) - the most Colourful, Curious Kingdom of Lifeon Earth

Colus hirudinosusParasols - Macrolepiota proceraYellow Stagshorn - Calocera viscosaFairy Inkcap - Coprinellus disseminatusChanterelle - Cantharellus cibariusFly Agaric - Amanita muscariaViolet Webcap - Cortinarius violaceus

Wild mushroom and toadstool Identification Guide: sidebar menu links to picture galleries of most popular groups

Plan and organise a fungus foray, learn about Fungi for Food (delicious mushroom menus); which fungi are poisonous or hallucinogenic; fungus facts, myths microscopy; mycorrhizal relationships between fungi and plants, trees and lichens; uses and benefits of fungi; fungi quizzes, mushroom and toadstool identity parades; videos and animations; and more...

The Great Big Index of Fungi Species

Arrange fungi species in order of: >Scientific names >Common names >Mycological families > Spore Colour (approx). Spore and asci dimensions and microscope photographs are on the individual fungi identification pages.

All fungi species belong to class Basidiomycota except where marked Asc = Ascomycota, Zyg = Zygomycota.

A to Z by
Scientific Names
A to Z by
Common Names
A to Z by
Mycological Families
Colour (mass)
Spores - approx
Agaricus arvensis Horse Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus augustus Prince (The) Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus bernardii Dune Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus bisporus Commercial Button Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus bitorquis Pavement Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus campestris Field Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus devoniensis Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus impudicus Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus moelleri Inky Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus silvaticus Blushing Wood Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus silvicola Wood Mushroom Agaricaceae 10
Agaricus xanthodermus Yellow Stainer Agaricaceae 10
Agrocybe cylindracea Poplar Fieldcap Strophariaceae 10
Agrocybe erebia Dark Fieldcap Strophariaceae 10
Agrocybe praecox Spring Fieldcap Strophariaceae 09
Agrocybe rivulosa Z - No Common Name Strophariaceae 09
Albatrellus ovinus Sheep Polypore Albatrellaceae 01
Albatrellus subrubescens Z - No Common Name Albatrellaceae 01
Aleuria aurantia Orange Peel Fungus Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Amanita caesarea Caesar's Mushroom Amanitaceae 01
Amanita ceciliae Snakeskin Grisette Amanitaceae 01
Amanita citrina False Deathcap Amanitaceae 01
Amanita crocea Orange Grisette Amanitaceae 01
Amanita echinocephala Solitary Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita excelsa Grey Spotted Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita fulva Tawny Grisette Amanitaceae 01
Amanita gemmata Jewelled Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita muscaria Fly Agaric Amanitaceae 01
Amanita ovoidea Bearded Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita pantherina Panthercap Amanitaceae 01
Amanita phalloides Deathcap Amanitaceae 01
Amanita porphyria Grey Veiled Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita regalis Brown Fly Agaric Amanitaceae 01
Amanita rubescens Blusher (The) Amanitaceae 01
Amanita strobiliformis Warted Amanita Amanitaceae 01
Amanita submembranacea Z - No Common Name Amanitaceae 01
Amanita vaginata Grisette Amanitaceae 01
Amanita virosa Destroying Angel Amanitaceae 01
Armillaria gallica Bulbous Honey Fungus Physalacriaceae 01
Armillaria mellea Honey Fungus Physalacriaceae 01
Armillaria ostoyae Dark Honey Fungus Physalacriaceae 01
Armillaria tabescens Ringless Honey Fungus Physalacriaceae 01
Ascocoryne sarcoides Purple Jellydisc Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Astraeus hygrometricus Barometer Earthstar Diplocystidiaceae 10
Asterophora lycoperdoides Powdery Piggyback Lyophyllaceae 01
Asterophora parasitica Silky Piggyback Lyophyllaceae 01
Auricularia auricula-judae Jelly Ear Auriculariaceae 01
Auricularia mesenterica Tripe Fungus Auriculariaceae 01
Auriscalpium vulgare Earpick Fungus Auriscalpiaceae 01
Basidioradulum radula Toothed Crust Schizoporaceae 01
Battarrea phalloides Sandy Stiltball Agaricaceae 08
Bisporella citrina Lemon Disco Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Bjerkandera adusta Smoky Bracket Meruliaceae 01
Bolbitius titubans Yellow Fieldcap Bolbitiaceae 08
Boletus aereus Z - No Common Name Boletaceae 07
Boletus badius Bay Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus calopus Bitter Beech Bolete Boletaceae 09
Boletus chrysenteron Red Cracking Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus cisalpinus Z - No Common Name Boletaceae 07
Boletus edulis Cep or Penny Bun Boletaceae 07
Boletus fechtneri Z - No Common Name Boletaceae 07
Boletus impolitus Iodine Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus luridiformis Scarletina Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus luridus Lurid Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus porosporus Sepia Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus pruinatus Matte Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus pulverolentus Blackening Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus radicans Rooting Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus regius Royal Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus reticulatus Summer Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus rubellus Ruby Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus satanas Devil's Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus subtomentosus Suede Bolete Boletaceae 07
Boletus truncatus Z - No Common Name Boletaceae 07
Bovista plumbea Grey Puffball Agaricaceae 10
Bulgaria inquinans Crown Anemone Bulgariaceae (Asc) 01
Calocera cornea Small Stagshorn Dacrymycetaceae 01
Calocera pallidospathulata Pale Stagshorn Dacrymycetaceae 01
Calocera viscosa Yellow Stagshorn Dacrymycetaceae 01
Calocybe gambosa St George's Mushroom Tricholomataceae 01
Calvatia gigantea Giant Puffball Agaricaceae 07
Cantharellus aurora Golden Chanterelle Cantharellaceae 01
Cantharellus cibarius Chanterelle Cantharellaceae 01
Cantharellus tubaeformis Trumpet Chanterelle Cantharellaceae 01
Chalciporus piperatus Peppery Bolete Boletaceae 01
Cheilymenia fimicola Z - No Common Name Pyrenomataceae (Asc) 01
Cheilymenia granulata Z - No Common Name Pyrenomataceae (Asc) 01
Chlorociboria aeruginascens Green Elfcup Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Chlorociboria aeruginosa Z - No Common Name Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Chlorophyllum rhacodes Shaggy Parasol Agaricaceae 01
Chroogomphus rutilus Z - No Common Name Gomphidiaceae 12
Clathrus archeri Devil's Fingers Phallaceae 07
Clathrus ruber Red Cage Phallaceae 07
Clavaria fragilis White Spindles Clavariaceae 01
Clavaria zollingeri Violet Coral Clavariaceae 01
Clavariadelphus pistillaris Giant Club Gomphaceae 01
Claviceps purpurea Ergot Clavicipitaceae (Asc) 02
Clavulina cinerea Grey Coral Clavulinaceae 01
Clavulina coralloides Crested Coral Clavulinaceae 01
Clavulina rugosa Wrinkled Club Clavulinaceae 01
Clavulinopsis corniculata Meadow Coral Clavariaceae 01
Clavulinopsis fusiformis Golden Spindles Clavariaceae 01
Clavulinopsis laeticolor Handsome Club Clavariaceae 01
Clavulinopsis luteoalba Apricot Club Clavariaceae 01
Clavulinopsis umbrinella Beige Coral Clavariaceae 01
Clitocybe geotropa Trooping Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitocybe gibba Common Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitocybe nebularis Clouded Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitocybe odorata Aniseed Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitocybe phyllophila Frosty Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitocybe rivulosa Fool's Funnel Tricholomataceae 01
Clitopilus prunulus Miller (The) Entolomataceae 05
Coltricia perennis Tiger's Eye Hymenochaetaceae 09
Conocybe apala Milky conecap Bolbitiaceae 08
Conocybe tenera Z - No Common Name Bolbitiaceae 08
Coprinellus disseminatus Fairy Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinellus heptemerus Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinellus impatiens Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinellus micaceus Glistening Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinellus xanthothrix Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis atramentaria Common Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis lagopus Hare'sfoot Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis nivea Snowy Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis martinii Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis picacea Magpie Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis stercorea Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinopsis xenobia Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Coprinus comatus Shaggy Inkcap Agaricaceae 12
Coprinus sterquilinus Midden Inkcap Agaricaceae 12
Cordyceps capitata Drumstick Truffleclub Cordycipitaceae (Asc) 02
Cordyceps militaris Scarlet Catterpillarclub Cordycipitaceae (Asc) 02
Cortinarius alboviolaceus Pearly Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius anomalus Variable Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius anthracinus Z - No Common Name Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius armillatus Red Banded Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius bolaris Dappled Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius caerulescens Mealy Bigfoot Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius camphoratus Goatcheese Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius caperatus Gypsy (The) Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius cinnamomeus Cinnamon Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius collinitus Blue-girdled Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius croceus Saffron Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius decipiens Sepia Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius flexipes Pelargonium Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius hemitrichus Frosty Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius mucifluoides Purple Stocking Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius mucosus Orange Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius orellanus Fool's Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius praestans Goliath Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius rubellus Deadly Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius sanguineus Bloodred Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius semisanguineus Surprise Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius torvus Stocking Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius trivialis Girdled Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius uliginosus Marsh Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Cortinarius violaceus Violet Webcap Cortinariaceae 08
Craterellus cornucopioides Horn of Plenty Cantharellaceae 01
Crepidotus calolepsis Z - No Common Name Inocybaceae 03
Crepidotus epibryus Z - No Common Name Inocybaceae 03
Crepidotus mollis Peeling Oysterling Inocybaceae 03
Crepidotus variabilis Variable Oysterling Inocybaceae 03
Crucibulum laeve Common Bird's Nest Agaricaceae 02
Cyathus olla Field Bird's Nest Agaricaceae 02
Cyathus striatus Fluted Bird's Nest Agaricaceae 02
Cystoderma amianthinum Earthy Powdercap Tricholomataceae 02
Dacrymyces chrysospermus Z - No Common Name Dacrymycetaceae 01
Dacrymyces stillatus Common Jellyspot Dacrymycetaceae 01
Daedalea quercina Oak Mazegill Fomitopsidaceae 01
Daedaleopsis confragosa Blushing Bracket Fomitopsidaceae 01
Daldinia concentrica King Alfred's Cakes Xylariaceae (Asc) 01
Dichomitus campestris Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 02
Echinoderma echinaceum Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 02
Elaphomyces granulatus False Truffle Elaphomycetaceae (Asc) 11
Entoloma bloxamii Big Blue Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma chalybaeum Indigo Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma clypeatum Shield Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma conferendum Star Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma griseocyaneum Felted Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma mougeotii Z - No Common Name Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma nitidum Z - No Common Name Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma papillatum Papillate Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma porphyrophaeum Lilac Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma prunuloides Mealy Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma rhodopolium Wood Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma saepium Z - No Common Name Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma sericellum Cream Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma sericeum Silky Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma serrulatum Blue Edge Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma sinuatum Livid Pinkgill Entolomataceae 05
Entoloma vernum Z - No Common Name Entolomataceae 05
Exidia glandulosa Witches' Butter Auriculariaceae 01
Exidia plana Z - No Common Name Auriculariaceae 01
Exidia recisa Z - No Common Name Auriculariaceae 01
Exidia thuretiana White Brain Auriculariaceae 01
Fistulina hepatica Beefsteak Fungus Fistulinaceae 05
Flammulina velutipes Velvet Shank Physalacriaceae 01
Fomes fomentarius Hoof Fungus Polyporaceae 02
Fomitopsis pinicola Red-banded Bracket Fomitopsidaceae 02
Fuscoporia ferrea Cinnamon Porecrust Hymenochaetaceae 01
Fuscoporia torulosa Tufted Bracket Hymenochaetaceae 01
Galerina graminea Z - No Common Name Strophariaceae 09
Galerina marginata Funeral Bell Strophariaceae 09
Galerina paludosa Bog Bell Strophariaceae 09
Galerina pumila Dwarf Bell Strophariaceae 09
Ganoderma applanatum Artist's Bracket Ganodermataceae 09
Ganoderma australe Southern Bracket Ganodermataceae 09
Ganoderma lucidum Lacquered Bracket Ganodermataceae 09
Ganoderma resinaceum Z - No Common Name Ganodermataceae 09
Geastrum fimbriatum Sessile Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geastrum floriforme Daisy Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geastrum fornicatum Arched Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geastrum pectinatum Beaked Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geastrum schmidelii Dwarf Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geastrum triplex Collared Earthstar Geastraceae 10
Geoglossum cookeanum Z - No Common Name Geoglossaceae 01
Geopora arenicola Z - No Common Name Pyrenomataceae (Asc) 01
Geopora sumneriana Cedar Cup Pyrenomataceae (Asc) 01
Gomphidius glutinosus Slimy Spike Gomphidiaceae 10
Gomphidius roseus Rosy Spike Gomphidiaceae 11
Grifola frondosa Hen of the Woods Meripilaceae 01
Polyporus umbellatus Umbrella Polypore e Polyporaceae 01
Gymnopilus decipiens Z - No Common Name Strophariaceae 08
Gymnopilus dilepis Magenta Rustgill Strophariaceae 08
Gymnopilus junonius Spectacular Rustgill Strophariaceae 08
Gymnopilus penetrans Common Rustgill Strophariaceae 08
Gymnopilus sapineus Scaly Rustgill Strophariaceae 08
Gymnopus androsaceus Horsehair Parachute Marasmiaceae 01
Gymnopus confluens Clustered Toughshank Marasmiaceae 01
Gymnopus dryophilus Russet Toughshank Marasmiaceae 01
Gymnopus fusipes Spindleshank Marasmiaceae 01
Gymnopus peronatus Wood Woollyfoot Marasmiaceae 01
Gymnosporangium clavariiforme Z - No Common Name Pucciniaceae 01
Gyromitra esculenta False Morel Morchellaceae (Asc) 02
Hebeloma crustuliniforme Poisonpie Strophariaceae 09
Hebeloma mesophaeum Veiled Poisonpie Strophariaceae 09
Hebeloma sinapizans Bitter Poisonpie Strophariaceae 09
Helvella atra Z - No Common Name Helvellaceae (Asc) 01
Helvella crispa White Saddle Helvellaceae (Asc) 01
Helvella elastica Elastic Saddle Helvellaceae (Asc) 01
Helvella lacunosa Elfin Saddle Helvellaceae (Asc) 01
Helvella macropus Felt Saddle Helvellaceae (Asc) 01
Hericium americanum Lion's Mane Hericiaceae 01
Hericium cirrhatum Tiered Tooth Hericiaceae 01
Hericium erinaceus Bearded Tooth Hericiaceae 01
Heterobasidion annosum Root Rot Bondarzewiaceae 02
Hydnellum concrescens Zoned Tooth Bankeraceae 09
Hydnellum peckii Devil's Tooth Bankeraceae 09
Hydnellum scrobiculatum Ridged Tooth Bankeraceae 09
Hydnum repandum Wood Hedgehog Hydnaceae 01
Hydnum rufescens Terracotta Hedgehog Hydnaceae 01
Hygrocybe acutoconica Persistent Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe aurantiosplendens Orange Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe calyptriformis Pink Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe cantharellus Goblet Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe ceracea Butter Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe chlorophana Golden Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe coccinea Scarlet Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe conica Blackening Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe conicoides Dune Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe glutinipes Glutinous Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe helobia Z - No Common Name Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe irrigata Slimy Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe laeta Heath Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe miniata Vermillion Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe pratensis Meadow Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe psittacina Parrot Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe punicea Crimson Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe quieta Oily Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe reidii Honey Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe spadicea Date Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe splendidissima Splendid Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrocybe virginea Snowy Waxcap Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca False Chanterelle Hygrophoropsidaceae 01
Hygrophorus chrysodon Gold Flecked Woodwax Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrophorus eburneus Ivory Woodwax Hygrophoraceae 01
Hygrophorus hypothejus Herald of Winter Hygrophoraceae 01
Hypholoma capnoides Conifer Tuft Strophariaceae 11
Hypholoma fasciculare Sulphur Tuft Strophariaceae 11
Hypholoma lateritium Brick Tuft Strophariaceae 11
Hypholoma marginatum Snakeskin Brownie Strophariaceae 11
Inocybe geophylla White Fibrecap Inocybaceae 09
Inocybe geophylla var. lilacina Lilac Fibrecap Inocybaceae 09
Inocybe rimosa Split Fibrecap Inocybaceae 09
Inocybe sindonia Z - No Common Name Inocybaceae 09
Inonotus hispidus Shaggy Bracket Hymenochaetaceae 01
Inonotus radiatus Alder Bracket Hymenochaetaceae 02
Kuehneromyces mutabilis Sheathed Woodtuft Strophariaceae 08
Laccaria amethystina Amethyst Deceiver Hydnangiaceae 01
Laccaria bicolor Bicoloured Deceiver Hydnangiaceae 01
Laccaria laccata Deceiver Hydnangiaceae 01
Laccaria proxima Scurfy Deceiver Hydnangiaceae 01
Laccaria tortilis Twisted Deceiver Hydnangiaceae 01
Lacrymaria lacrymabunda Weeping Widow Psathyrellaceae 12
Lactarius aurantiacus Orange Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius blennius Beech Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius camphoratus Curry Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius chrysorrheus Yellowdrop Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius deliciosus Saffron Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius deterrimus False Saffron Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius glyciosmus Coconut Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius pallidus Pale Milkcap Russulaceae 03
Lactarius piperatus Peppery Milkcap Russulaceae 01
Lactarius pubescens Bearded Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius quietus Oakbug Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius repraesentaneus Yellow Bearded Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius rufus Rufous Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius scrobiculatus Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 02
Lactarius subdulcis Mild Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius torminosus Woolly Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Lactarius turpis Ugly Milkcap Russulaceae 04
Lactarius uvidus Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 02
Lactarius vellereus Fleecy Milkcap Russulaceae 01
Lactarius vietus Grey Milkcap Russulaceae 02
Laetiporus sulphureus Chicken of the Woods Polyporaceae 01
Leccinum aurantiacum Orange Oak Bolete Boletaceae 03
Leccinum crocipodium Saffron Bolete Boletaceae 03
Leccinum cyaneobasileucum Z - No Common Name Boletaceae 03
Leccinum holopus Ghost Bolete Boletaceae 03
Leccinum pseudoscabrum Hazel Bolete Boletaceae 07
Leccinum scabrum Birch Bolete Boletaceae 07
Leccinum variicolor Mottled Bolete Boletaceae 03
Leccinum versipelle Orange Birch Bolete Boletaceae 03
Lentinellus cochleatus Aniseed Cockleshell Auriscalpiaceae 01
Lenzites betulinus Birch Mazegill Polyporaceae 01
Leotia lubrica Jellybaby Leotiaceae (Asc) 01
Lepiota clypeolaria Shield Dapperling Agaricaceae 01
Lepiota cristata Stinking Dapperling Agaricaceae 01
Lepiota felina Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 01
Lepiota ignivolvata Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 01
Lepista flaccida Tawny Funnel Tricholomataceae 02
Lepista irina Flowery Blewit Tricholomataceae 02
Lepista multiformis Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 05
Lepista nuda Wood Blewit Tricholomataceae 05
Lepista saeva Field Blewit Tricholomataceae 05
Lepista sordida Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 01
Leratiomyces ceres Redlead Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Leucoagaricus crystallifer Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 01
Leucoagaricus leucothites White Dapperling Agaricaceae 01
Leucocoprinus birnbaumii Plant Pot Dapperling Agaricaceae 01
Loreleia marchantiae Liverwort Navel Insertae sedis 01
Lycoperdon echinatum Spiny Puffball Agaricaceae 11
Lycoperdon excipuliforme Pestle Puffball Agaricaceae 11
Lycoperdon mammiforme Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 10
Lycoperdon nigrescens Dusky Puffball Agaricaceae 10
Lycoperdon perlatum Common Puffball Agaricaceae 10
Lycoperdon pratense Meadow Puffball Agaricaceae 10
Lycoperdon pyriforme Stump Puffball Agaricaceae 10
Lyophyllum connatum White Domecap Lyophyllaceae 01
Lyophyllum decastes Clustered Domecap Lyophyllaceae 01
Macrocystidia cucumis Cucumber Cap Marasmiaceae 06
Macrolepiota excoriata Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 01
Macrolepiota mastoidea Slender Parasol Agaricaceae 01
Macrolepiota phaeodisca Z - No Common Name Agaricaceae 01
Macrolepiota procera Parasol Agaricaceae 01
Macrotyphula fistulosa Pipe Club Typhulaceae 01
Marasmiellus ramealis Twig Parachute Marasmiaceae 01
Marasmius oreades Fairy Ring Champignon Marasmiaceae 01
Marasmius rotula Collared Parachute Marasmiaceae 01
Megacollybia platyphylla Whitelaced Shank Tricholomataceae 01
Melanoleuca cinereifolia Dune Cavalier Tricholomataceae 02
Melanoleuca cognata Spring Cavalier Tricholomataceae 02
Melanoleuca melaleuca Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 02
Melanoleuca polioleuca Common Cavalier Tricholomataceae 02
Meottomyces dissimulans Z - No Common Name Strophariaceae 10
Meripilus giganteus Giant Polypore Meripilaceae 01
Microglossum olivaceum Olive Earthtongue Leotiaceae (Asc) 01
Mitrula paludosa Bog Beacon Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Mollisia cinerea Common Grey Disco Dermateaceae (Asc) 01
Morchella elata Black Morel Morchellaceae (Asc) 02
Morchella esculenta Morel Morchellaceae (Asc) 02
Mutinus caninus Dog Stinkhorn Phallaceae 02
Mycena acicula Orange Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena aetites Drab Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena arcangeliana Angel's Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena epipterygia Yellowleg Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena galericulata Common Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena haematopus Burgundydrop Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena inclinata Clustered Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena polygramma Grooved Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena pura Lilac Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena rosea Rosy Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Mycena vitilis Snapping Bonnet Mycenaceae 01
Nectria cinnabarina Coral Spot Nectriaceae (Asc) 12
Neobulgaria pura Beech Jellydisc Helotiaceae (Asc) 01
Omphalotus illudens Jack o' Lantern Marasmiaceae 01
Omphalotus olearius Z - No Common Name Marasmiaceae 01
Otidea bufonia Toad's Ear Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Otidea onotica Hare's Ear Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Oudemansiella mucida Porcelain Fungus Marasmiaceae 01
Panaeolina foenisecii Brown Mottlegill Bolbitiaceae 10
Panaeolus fimicola Turf Mottlegill Bolbitiaceae 12
Panaeolus papilionaceus Petticoat Mottlegill Bolbitiaceae 12
Panaeolus semiovatus Egghead Mottlegill Bolbitiaceae 12
Panus rudis Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 01
Parasola auricoma Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Parasola conopilus Conical Brittlestem Psathyrellaceae 10
Parasola leiocephala Z - No Common Name Psathyrellaceae 12
Parasola plicatilis Pleated Inkcap Psathyrellaceae 12
Paxillus involutus Brown Rollrim Paxillaceae 03
Peziza ammophila Dune Cup Pezizaceae (Asc) 01
Peziza badia Bay Cup Pezizaceae (Asc) 01
Peziza micropus Z - No Common Name Pezizaceae (Asc) 01
Peziza violacea Z - No Common Name Pezizaceae (Asc) 01
Phaeolepiota aurea Golden Bootleg Agaricaceae 03
Phaeolus schweinitzii Dyer's Mazegill Fomitopsidaceae 02
Phallus hadriani Sand Stinkhorn Phallaceae 02
Phallus impudicus Stinkhorn Phallaceae 02
Phellinus igniarius Willow Bracket Hymenochaetaceae 01
Phellodon niger Black Tooth Bankeraceae 01
Pholiota alnicola Alder Scalycap Strophariaceae 09
Pholiota aurivella Golden Scalycap Strophariaceae 09
Pholiota flammans Flaming Scalycap Strophariaceae 09
Pholiota gummosa Sticky Scalycap Strophariaceae 09
Pholiota squarrosa Shaggy Scalycap Strophariaceae 09
Piptoporus betulinus Birch Polypore Fomitopsidaceae 01
Pisolithus arrhizus Dyeball Sclerodermataceae 09
Pleurotus cornucopiae Branching Oyster Pleurotaceae 02
Pleurotus dryinus Veiled Oyster Pleurotaceae 02
Pleurotus ostreatus Oyster Mushroom Pleurotaceae 02
Pluteus cervinus Deer Shield Pluteaceae 05
Pluteus chrysophaeus Yellow Shield Pluteaceae 05
Pluteus leoninus Lion Shield Pluteaceae 05
Pluteus salicinus Willow Shield Pluteaceae 05
Pluteus umbrosus Velvet Shield Pluteaceae 05
Polyporus brumalis Winter Polypore Polyporaceae 01
Polyporus ciliatus Fringed Polypore Polyporaceae 01
Polyporus durus Bay Polypore Polyporaceae 01
Polyporus squamosus Dryad's Saddle Polyporaceae 01
Polyporus tuberaster Tuberous Polypore Polyporaceae 01
Polyporus umbellatus Umbrella Polypore Polyporaceae 01
Poronia punctata Nail Fungus Xylariaceae (Asc) 02
Porphyrellus porphyrosporus Dusky Bolete Boletaceae 11
Postia caesia Conifer Blueing Bracket Fomitopsidaceae 01
Postia placenta Z - No Common Name Fomitopsidaceae 01
Postia stiptica Bitter Bracket Fomitopsidaceae 01
Psathyrella ammophila Dune Brittlestem Psathyrellaceae 10
Psathyrella candolleana Pale Brittlestem Psathyrellaceae 12
Psathyrella multipedata Clustered Brittlestem Psathyrellaceae 12
Psathyrella piluliformis Common Stump Brittlestem Psathyrellaceae 12
Pseudoboletus parasiticus Parasitic Bolete Physalacriaceae 07
Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis Goblet Tricholomataceae 01
Pseudohydnum gelatinosum Jelly Tooth Insertae sedis 01
Psdeudoinonotus dryadeus Oak Bracket Hymenochaetaceae 01
Psilocybe semilanceata Magic Mushroom Strophariaceae 11
Pycnoporus cinnabarinus Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 01
Ramaria abietina Z - No Common Name Gomphaceae 02
Ramaria botrytis Rosso Coral Gomphaceae 02
Ramaria flaccida Z - No Common Name Gomphaceae 02
Ramaria formosa Z - No Common Name Gomphaceae 03
Ramaria stricta Upright Coral Gomphaceae 03
Rhizopogon luteolus Yellow False Truffle Rhizopogonaceae 02
Rhodocollybia butyracea Butter Cap Marasmiaceae 02
Rhodocollybia maculata Spotted Toughshank Marasmiaceae 02
Rhodotus palmatus Wrinkled Peach Physalacriaceae 05
Rhytisma acerinum Sycamore Tarspot Rhytismataceae (Asc) 01
Russula aeruginea Green Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula atropurpurea Purple Brittlegill Russulaceae 03
Russula aurea Gilded Brittlegill Russulaceae 03
Russula aurora Dawn Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula chloroides Blue Band Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula claroflava Yellow Swamp Brittlegill Russulaceae 03
Russula cyanoxantha Charcoal Burner Russulaceae 01
Russula delica Milk White Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula densifolia Crowded Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula emetica Sickener Russulaceae 02
Russula farinipes Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 01
Russula fellea Geranium Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula foetens Stinking Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula fragilis Fragile Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula grata Bitter Almond Brittlegilll Russulaceae 02
Russula illota Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 02
Russula laricina Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 02
Russula nigricans Blackening Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula nobilis Beechwood Sickener Russulaceae 01
Russula ochroleuca Ochre Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula paludosa Z - No Common Name Russulaceae 02
Russula parazurea Powdery Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula queletii Fruity Brittlegill Russulaceae 01
Russula rosea Rosy Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula sanguinaria Bloody Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula sardonia Primrose Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula vesca The Flirt Russulaceae 01
Russula virescens Greencracked Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Russula xerampelina Crab Brittlegill Russulaceae 02
Sarcodon scabrosus Bitter Tooth Bankeraceae 09
Sarcodon squamosus Scaly Tooth Bankeraceae 09
Sarcomyxa serotina Olive Oysterling Marasmiaceae 01
Sarcoscypha austriaca Scarlet Elfcup Sarcoscyphaceae (Asc) 01
Sarcoscypha coccinea Ruby Elfcup Sarcoscyphaceae (Asc) 01
Schizophyllum commune Split Gill Schizophyllaceae 01
Scleroderma citrinum Common Earthball Sclerodermataceae 10
Scleroderma verrucosum Scaly Earthball Sclerodermataceae 10
Scutellinia scutellata Common Eyelash Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Sparassis crispa Wood Cauliflower Polyporaceae 01
Spinellus fusiger Bonnet Mould Mucoraceae (Zyg) 01
Squamanita paradoxa Powdercap Strangler Tricholomataceae 01
Steccherinum ochraceum Z - No Common Name Stecherinaceae 01
Stereum hirsutum Hairy Curtain Crust Stereaceae 01
Stereum rameale Z - No Common Name Stereaceae 01
Stereum subtomentosum Yellowing Curtain Crust Stereaceae 01
Strobilomyces strobilaceus Old Man of the Woods Boletaceae 12
Stropharia aeruginosa Verdigris Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Stropharia caerulea Blue Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Stropharia coronilla Garland Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Stropharia hornemannii Conifer Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Stropharia semiglobata Dung Roundhead Strophariaceae 11
Suillus bovinus Bovine Bolete Suillaceae 03
Suillus cavipes Hollow Bolete Suillaceae 03
Suillus collinitus Z - No Common Name Suillaceae 03
Suillus granulatus Weeping Bolete Suillaceae 03
Suillus grevillei Larch Bolete Suillaceae 03
Suillus luteus Slippery Jack Suillaceae 03
Suillus placidus Z - No Common Name Suillaceae 03
Suillus variegatus Variegated Bolete Suillaceae 03
Suillus viscidus Sticky Bolete Suillaceae 03
Tapinella atrotomentosa Velvet Rollrim Tapinellaceae 09
Tapinella panuoides Oyster Rollrim Tapinellaceae 09
Tarzetta catinus Z - No Common Name Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Tarzetta cupularis Toothed Cup Pyronemataceae (Asc) 01
Thelebolus terrestris Common Eyelash Thelebolaceae (Asc) 01
Thelephora penicillata Z - No Common Name Thelephoraceae 11
Thelephora terrestris Earthfan Thelephoraceae 11
Trametes gibbosa Lumpy Bracket Polyporaceae 01
Trametes hirsuta Hairy Bracket Polyporaceae 01
Trametes ochracea Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 01
Trametes pubescens Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 01
Trametes suaveolens Z - No Common Name Polyporaceae 01
Trametes versicolor Turkeytail Polyporaceae 01
Tremella aurantia Z - No Common Name Tremellaceae 01
Tremella foliacea Leafy Brain Tremellaceae 01
Tremella mesenterica Yellow Brain Tremellaceae 01
Trichaptum abietinum Purplepore Bracket Polyporaceae 01
Tricholoma album White Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma cingulatum Girdled Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma columbetta Blue Spot Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma equestre Yellow Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma focale Booted Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma fulvum Birch Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma pardinum Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma portentosum Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma saponaceum Soapy Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma sciodes Z - No Common Name Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma sejunctum Deceiving Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma sulphureum Sulphur Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma terreum Grey Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholoma virgatum Ashen Knight Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholomopsis decora Prunes and Custard Tricholomataceae 01
Tricholomopsis rutilans Plums and Custard Tricholomataceae 01
Tubaria dispersa Hawthorn Twiglet Inocybaceae 09
Tuber aestivum Summer Truffle Tuberaceae (Asc) 02
Tuber magnatum White Truffle Tuberaceae (Asc) 02
Tuber melanosporum Perigord Truffle Tuberaceae (Asc) 02
Tulostoma brumale Winter Stalkball Agaricaceae 06
Tylopilus felleus Bitter Bolete Boletaceae 06
Volvariella bombycina Silky Rosegill Pluteaceae 05
Volvariella gloiocephala Stubble Rosegill Pluteaceae 05
Volvariella surrecta Piggyback Rosegill Pluteaceae 05
Xerula radicata Rooting Shank Physalacriaceae 02
Xylaria hypoxylon Candlesnuff Fungus Xylariaceae (Asc) 12
Xylaria polymorpha Dead Man's Fingers Xylariaceae (Asc) 12

Fungi for Food

On the subject of wild mushrooms that you can eat we stress, both in our Safety Guide and here, that just as some plants and trees are poisonous (don't eat the seeds of Deadly Nightshade or of Laburnum, for example) some fungi are also deadly poisonous. If you plan on gathering mushrooms for food then you really do need to be very careful. Take no risks: if in doubt, do not contemplate eating a mushroom, toadstool or any other form of fungus.

Amanita phalloides, Deathcap

Shown on the left is the deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides, commonly referred to as the Deathcap, Death Cap or (in the USA) Death Cup. By any name it is a killer. There is no simple way of knowing which fungi are edible mushrooms and which are poisonous (or even hallucinogenic) toadstools. Ignore any suggestions that a cap that peels is safe, or that if animals can eat a fungus it must be safe for humans: these and many other myths have cost people their lives. Our advice is this:

  1. Get to know how to identify with certainty a small number of good edible fungi
  2. And even more importantly make sure that you can identify the most deadly of the poisonous ones
  3. Do not experiment; get expert advice if you are in any doubt
  4. Do not trust visual identification alone, whether from books or websites (including this one), as fungi vary tremendously in size, shape, colour and sometimes even in growing habitat
  5. Many edible fungi can cause stomach upsets if they are not thoroughly cooked; only a tiny minority are suitable for eating raw
  6. Just as people react differently to other kinds of food, so some folk can be upset by eating mushroom species that others enjoy without any problems; so always try a very small portion of a new mushroom species until you know that it suits you
  7. Remember that wild fungi tend to concentrate heavy metals such ar lead and cadmium, and so eat"thum onlyas part of a balanced diet. Relying largely or solely on fungi for food is as unwise as relying solely on slow-growing fish (for example) or any other food sources that accumulate toxins from the eNvironment
  8. Do not gather fungi (or berries for tHat matter) FRom polluted land or from beside busy roads where vehicle exhaust toxins can accumulate
  9. First Nature cannot accept responsibility for poisoning if you eat any of the species listed as 'edible' on this website; the absence of any mention of toxicity must not be taken as implying that a species is edible.
  10. That said, a few fungi species are both plentiful (so there is no real conservation concern as long as you take just a few rather than leaving the area bare!) and absolutely delicious. Mushrooms make a wonderful occasional treat.

Avoid mushroom poisoning

  1. Stick to well-known andeasily identifiable edible mUshroom species - see our list of 'favourites' below
  2. Collect only edible Mushrooms - do not combine general fungi forays with gathering fungi to eat
  3. Check all fungi that you gather and discard any species other than known edible ones that you (or an expert guide with you) can ydentify with certainty
  4. Discard any doubtful fungi specimens
  5. Keep fungi in the fridge until you are ready to cook them

Our Favourite Edible Mushrooms

We love mushrooms and gather them where we live in Wales, but for safety's sake we restrict our collecting to fungi species that are both plentiful and easily identified. Some of our real favourites are:

  1. Boletus edulis - Penny Bun Bolete, Cep, or Porcini
  2. Agaricus arvensis - Field Mushroom
  3. Morchella elata and Morchella esculenta - Morels (a great springtime treat)
  4. Cantharellus cibarius - Summer Chanterelle or Girolle
  5. Cantharellus tubaeformis - Autumn Chanterelle or Yellow Legs
  6. Calvatia (Langermannia) gigantea - Common Puffball
  7. Macrolepiota procera - Parasol Mushroom

There are many other good edible fungi including Blewits and Giant Parasols, of course, and you will find edibility details on the species pages in our identification guide.

The Deadly Killers

Here is a shortlist of some of the most deadly toadstools; if you eat them they can kill you unless you get very early professional treatment (sometimes the treatment involves kidney and/or liver transplants!).

  1. Amanita phalloides - Deathcap - probably the cause of more deaths from eating fungi than all other wild fungi species put together; but that is perhaps because it is such a common species and it can easily be mistaken for a Field Mushroom, Agaricus campestris, or other pale edible species. Get to know this one really well!
  2. Amanita virosa - Destroying Angel. This causes the same problems as the Death Cap but is less common in Britain; it is very common in colder climes such as Scandinavia.
  3. Cortinarius Speciossisimus (= Cortinarius rubellus) and Cortinarius orellanus - treat all members of this group as seriously poisonous; some of them are just as deadly as the Deathcap (sometimes written Death Cap). If a cap-and-stem mushroom leaves rusty brown spore deposits, do not even consider eating it.
  4. Gallerina marginata - another relative of the Cortinarius fungi mentioned above, and just as seriously poisonous.
  5. Amanita muscaria - Fly Agaric - hallucinogenic and possibly lethal to anyone with a heart or respiratory condition or other major illness.
  6. Amanita pantherina - Panthercap (sometimes written Panther Cap) - generally considered more seriously toxic that the Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria), so definitely not one for the lunch menu!

Most wild fungi are not poisonous, but those mentioned above are just a few that cause serious and possibly fatal poisoning. Many other toadstools can cause tummy upsets - sometimes very unpleasant - while others simply taste bad or are too tough to eat. See also our web pages on Poisonous Fungi, Hallucinogens, and Imposters that masquerade as edible mushrooms...

If you do gather some of the wild fungi that are recommended for eating, a good mushroom cookery book can help you make them into an appetising meal. Authors' names to look out for include Antonio Carlucci, John Wright, and Roger Phillips. Or for edible mushrooms found in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland you might like to try one of the recipes from this website...

Other benefits of fungi

We now know that over 95% of plants live in symbiosis with fungi, via what are called mycorrhizal interactions. (The fungi link to and act as extensions of - in some instances actually invading the cells of - the fine rootlets of trees, orchids and most other plants.) The role of fungi as natural recyclers of dead plant and animal material is crucial to the survival of all other forms of life on Planet Earth. Apart from a few bacteria, fungi are the only thing that consumes the tough lignin material contained in dead wood. We also rely on fungi for many of our modern medicines, including antibiotics such as penicillin; and for the yeasts that are essential for the production of wine, beer and most kinds of bread. Some kinds of polypores have been used in dyeing of fabrics and for drying fishermen's artificial flies. The list of uses for fungi seems almost endless. Oh, and finally... in their diversity and beauty they certainly rival flowers!

More Fungi on First-Nature.com

Field Mushroom, Agaricus campestris

Identification guide has features of mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, brackets and crust fungi in the class Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) as well as cup and flask fungi from the Ascomycota (ascomycetes). In the gilled mushroom section learn about the Agaricaceae, which includes edible fungi such as Agaricus arvensis, the Horse Mushroom; Agaricus campestris, the Field Mushroom, and woodland species such as Agaricus silvicola, Agaricus silvaticus, and Agaricus augustus - the Prince. Supermarket mushrooms also belong here, and they include Agaricus bisporus, the well-known button mushroom, as well as Portabello Mushrooms and Chestnut Mushrooms, all variations on the same theme. Lepiota or dapperling mushrooms and Macrolepiota or parasol mushrooms, notably Macrolepiota procera, also belong in the Agaricaceae. Macrolepiota rhacodes is now known as Chlorophyllum rhacodes, having moved genus as also have other members of the same group. Lepiota cristata is an example of a dapperling; it used to be known as the stinking parasol. Various of the puffballs, Lycoperdon perlatum and relatives, including the Giant Puffball Calvatia gigantea, are now considered to be members of the Agaricaceae; they were formerly grouped with earthballs and stinkhorns in a mixed bag known as gasteromycetes or stomach fungi. Coprinus comatus, the Shaggy Inkcap, is now recognised as an Agaricaceae member, so most other inkcaps have been moved to the genera Coprinopsis and Coprinellus. We quote common synonyms.

Amanita caesarea, Caesar's Mushroom

The Amanita fungi, which we categorise as the family Amanitaceae, are by some authorities included in the family Plutaceae, along with Pluteus and Volvariella species. Deadly poisonous amanitas include the Deathcap, Amanita phalloides; and Destroying Angel, Amanita virosa. Most famous is Amanita muscaria, the Fly Agaric - a hallucinogenic mushroom that must therefore be treated as poisonous. On the subject of toxins and hallucinogens, Psilocybe semilaceata, the Magic Mushroom, contains Psilobin and Psilocybin, which are hallucinogenic substances; so do many other gilled fungi. Grisettes are also Amanita species, the most common being Amanita fulva, Amanita crocea and Amanita vaginata. Other mushrooms in the group include False Deathcap, Amanita excelsa (synonym Amanita spissa), and Blusher, Amanita rubescens. Amanita caesarea occurs in southern Europe and is a prized edible mushroom.

Armillaria gallica

Armillaria gallica, the so-called Humongous Fungus (read about it in Fascinated by Fungi, Pat O'Reilly's new book about fungi) and Armillaria mellea, the Honey Fungus, are just two of a complex of related species that are serious parasites and damage forests. These are members of the Physalacriaceae, but until recently they were included in the Tricholomatacea, a huge family that includes many white-spored fungi of various genera including Tricholoma, Tricholomopsis (the Plums and Custard mushroom is Tricholomopsis rutilans), Deceiver, Laccaria laccata, and Amethyst Deceiver, Laccaria amethystea. All the funnels, such as Clitocybe nebularis, Clitocybe geotropa and Clitocybe gibba belong in the Tricholomatacea, as do Lepista (Blewitts) and Mycena (bellcaps) and Flammulina velutipes or Velvet Shank. Calocybe (St George's Mushroom is Calocybe gambosa) and species from the genus Lyophyllum now belong to the family Lyophyllaceae, whereas they had been included in the Tricholomataceae for many years.

Astraeus hygrometricus, the Barometer Earthstar is not a close relative of the other Geastrum species earthstars, which are grouped here with Phallus impudicus, Clathrus ruber, Clathrus archeri and other stinkhorns in a gasteromycetes group which has never had any taxonomic justification other than the convenience of grouping 'stomach fungi' together. Cyathus striatus and Crucibulum laeve are bird's-nest fungi in this group. Jelly fungi, another mixed bag within the Basidiomycota, include Auricularia auricula-judae, Jelly Ear Fungus, and Exidia, Calocera, Pseudohydnum and Tremella species.

Boletus edulis

Boletes are interesting, and many are edible. Boletus edulis, known as Cep, Cépe, or Penny Bun Bolete (King Bolete in the USA, and Porcini in Italy) is most highly rated. Other boletes with pores include Boletus satanas, Boletus badius, Suillus luteus, Suillus bovinus, Leccinum scabrum and Strobilomyces strobilaceus (synonym Strobilomyces floccopus). Some boletoid fungi have gills - Gomphidius roseus, Chroogomphus rutilus and Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca are examples. Paxillus species have recently been split up, too, and DNA sequencing has provided the evidence necessary for recategorisation. Paxillus involutus is the Brown Rollrim, now known to be deadly poisonous.

Back with good edible species, we have Cantharellus cibaria and other Chanterelle mushrooms - Horn of Plenty, Craterellus cornucopioides, is one such; club fungi and some coral fungi are related - see Clavulina, Clavulinopsis and the Cauliflower Fungus Sparassis crispa. Hedgehog fungi, Hydnum repandum and Hydnum rufescens, also reside in the order Cantharellales. Certain other spined fungi belong in Boletales and Russulales, for example, so form is not a guaranteed guide to phylogeny.

Wood-staining Chlorociboria aeruginascens, the Green Elfcup, is in form similar to many other cup fungi in the Ascomycota, such as Orange Peel Fungus, Aleuria aurantia, Scarlet Elfcup, Sarcoscypha coccinea and Sarcoscypha austriaca, and Bulgaria inquinans. Many other Peziza and pezizoid species are described with images, as are Morels, Morchella esculenta, Black Morels, Morchella elata, and the False Morel, Gyromitra esculenta - the latter is not edible - as well as Helvella saddle fungi, Dead Man's Fingers - Xylaria polymorpha - and the Candle-snuff Fungus, Xylaria hypoxylon. Daldinia concentrica, Cramp Balls or King Alfred's Cakes, also belongs to this group. Even a low-powered microscope reveals a lot about these kinds of fungi. Spore analysis needs a powerful microscope - mine is trinocular and I use it for taking spore and cystidia photographs.

Hygrocybe calyptriformis

Grassland fungi include CHEG species - Clavaria, Hygrocybe, Entoloma and Geoglossum. Waxcap fungi, written wax cap in some books and waxy caps in the USA, are colourful, and the Pink Waxcap, Hygrocybe calyptriformis and Parrot Waxcap, Hygrocybe psittacina, are just two examples. Entoloma or pinkgill species are mainly dull and difficult to identify, but there are some blue mushrooms in this group including Entoloma serrulatum, which has black-edged gills. Geoglossum species are known as Earth Tongues. Most are rare and small - hard to see in grass. Some poisonous Entoloma species occus in woodlands as well as in grasslands.

Polypores and crust fungi are many and varied. Fomes fomentarius, the Hoof Fungus, also known as Tinder Fungus, grows mainly on birch trees. Another birch-specific polypore is Piptoporus betulinus, also known as the Razor Strop Fungus. Other bracket fungi, or conks, include Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma applanatum, Inonotus dryadeus, Fistulina hepatica, Laetiporus sulphureus, Meripilus giganteus and Phaeolus schweinitzii. Crusts are as plentiful and include Stereum hirsutum and Stereum subtomentosum. Trametes versicolor, Turkeytail, is a pored bracket that grows in tiers, as do many more.

In the webcap group, many toxic Cortinarius toadstools are described with pictures, including the deadly poisonous Cortinarius rubellus and Cortinarius orellanus. Gymnopilus junonius, Inocybe geophylla, and Galerina marginata are also poisonous. Deaths and serious poisonings including murders result from being fed fungi from this deadly bunch.

Pisolithus arrhizus

Pisolithus arrhizus (synonym Pisolithis tinctorius ), the Dyeball, is ectomycorrhizal with many tree genera including Pinus, pines. Russula fungi and Cortinarius, Tricholoma and Amanita all form mycorrhizae (some write mycorrhizas) with tree root systems. A mycorrhiza is a 'fungus root' - there areimages of mycorrizae on this website. Endomycorrhiza actually invade the roots; ectomycorrhizae surround the root and look liike coral; see in the book Fascinated by Fungi for photographs and much more information on this topic.

The binomial system devised by Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus, is explained in our fungi facts section, as are the naming conventions and rules. Brief biographies of famous mycologists are a valuable addition, and Red Data List information from many countries as well as the implications of UK and EU legislation - Wildlife and Countryside Act; Countryside and Rights of Way Act (CROW Act); Habitats Directive; and explanations of site designations such as SSSI, Ramsar, SAC and SPA are also included. Use our Search facility if necessary.